May 05

Gait, andar e marcha à ré

The Ministry of Silly Walks

Quanto ao conceito de marcha (do inglês gait), a definição de gait (marcha) como “pattern of movement of the limbs of animals, including humans, during locomotion over a solid substrate” (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gait) é aceita universalmente pela comunidade científica.

Para humanos, gait (marcha) inclui andar e correr, mas conceitualmente nem mesmo se limita a estas duas formas, ainda que empiricamente é o que é observado. 
Para verificar a universalidade da definição de marcha (gait) descrita acima – isto é, que marcha no mínimo inclui andar e correr – veja por exemplo os seguintes trechos de artigos relevantes da área de Biomecânica onde o conceito de gait (marcha) é utilizado:
  • As the gait repertoire for `usual’ locomotion is limited in humans to walking and running ...” (Minetti, 1998)
  • In 1836, the Weber brothers (Wilhelm and Eduard) set the agenda for future research with the most detailed treatise on walking and running gait to date.” (Novacheck, 1998)
  • Animals use different gaits to move at different speeds. Humans, for example, prefer to walk at relatively slow speeds and to run at faster speeds.” (Prilutsky, Gregor, 2001)
  • Bipedal walking and running are the normal human gaits.” (Alexander, 2004)
  • Although bipedal gaits include walking and running, running is generally considered to have played no major role in human evolution because humans, like apes, are poor sprinters compared to most quadrupeds.”  (Bramble, Lieberman, 2004)
  • Although people’s legs are capable of a broad range of muscle-use and gait patterns, they generally prefer just two. They walk, swinging their body over a relatively straight leg with each step, or run, bouncing up off a bent leg between aerial phases.” (Srinivasan, Ruina, 2005)
  • Walking and running are generally considered as distinct gait modes with strikingly different mechanics and energetics. Humans change gait to increase locomotion speed while saving energy.” (Cappellini, Ivanenko, Poppele, Lacquaniti, 2006)
  • Walking and running are the two most common forms of human gait, with many of the basic kinetics and kinematics of walking and running being similar between the two modes (e.g., Nilsson and Thorstensson, 1989; Nilsson et al., 1985).” (Sasaki, Neptune, 2006)
  • Fore-foot- and mid-foot-strike gaits were probably more common when humans ran barefoot or in minimal shoes, and may protect the feet and lower limbs from some of the impact related injuries now experienced by a high percentage of runners.” (Lieberman et al., 2010)
  • Experimental gait data from nine subjects were combined with a detailed computer model of the musculoskeletal system to determine the forces developed by the leg muscles at different running speeds.”  (Dorn, Schache, Pandy, 2012)
  • Experimental studies of gait at simulated low gravity have mostly ignored the possibility of a gait strategies different than walking or running (Kram et al., 1997; Griffin et al., 1999).”  (Ackermann, Bogert, 2012)
Ou seja, quem insiste definir marcha (gait) como sinônimo de andar, e nada mais, certo apenas é que está em marcha à ré com a Biomecânica.
Marcos Duarte

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